A selection of unprocessed inclusion-bearing gem quality diamonds from Letlhakane.The dark areas surrounding the shiny metal like inclusions (sulphide) are graphite in cracks that from due to the differential expansion of the sulphide and diamond when brought to the surface from a depth of over 150 km.[A Conventional Radiocarbon Age or CRA, does not take into account specific differences between the activity of different carbon reservoirs.A CRA is derived using an age calculation based upon the decay corrected activity of the absolute radiocarbon standard (1890 AD wood) which is in equilibrium with atmospheric radiocarbon levels (as mentioned previously, 1890 wood is no longer used as the primary radiocarbon standard, instead Oxalic Acid standards I and II were correlated with the activity of the original standard).
One diamond was found to contain silicate material that formed 2.3 billion years ago in its interior and a 250 million-year-old garnet crystal towards its outer rim, the largest age range ever detected in a single specimen.
Mountains, erosion, and variations in climate were considered to be punishment for the sins committed by humanity.
Buffon's Iron Sphere Experiments- On the basis of iron sphere cooling experiments, Frenchman Georges de Buffon estimated that the Earth would have needed 75,000 years to cool to its present temperature.
A shellfish alive today in a lake within a limestone catchment, for instance, will yield a radiocarbon date which is excessively old.
The reason for this anomaly is that the limestone, which is weathered and dissolved into bicarbonate, has no radioactive carbon.